Oxidating agent

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Recent Literature An efficient bismuth tribromide catalyzed oxidation of various alcohols with aqueous hydrogen peroxide provides carbonyl compounds in good yields. The resin-supported sulfonic acid is easily recycled. B.: search for artery of Adamkiewicz at vertebral level of T8 to L2 prior to embolization(a) forced inspiration causes a high negative intrathoracic pressure (Müller maneuver) and increases venous return (b) obstruction creates high positive intrathoracic pressure that impairs development of edemastereotypical inflammatory response of alveolar wall to injury (a) acute phase: fluid inflammatory cells exude into alveolar space, mononuclear cells accumulate in edematous alveolar wall (b) organizing phase: hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes attempt to regenerate alveolar epithelium, fibroblasts deposit collagen (c) chronic stage: dense collagenous fibrous tissue remodels normal pulmonary architecture: hamartoma (6%, 3rd most common lung mass), chondroma : lipoma (usually pleural lesion) : fibroma : leiomyoma : schwannoma, neurofibroma, paraganglioma : intrapulmonary lymph node : amyloid, splenosis, endometrioma, extramedullary hematopoiesisincreases lung compliance, stabilizes alveoli, enhances alveolar fluid clearance, reverses surface tension, protects against alveolar collapse during respiration, protects epithelial cell surface, reduces opening pressure precapillary tone HIV retrovirus attaches to CD4 molecule on surface of T-helper lymphocytes macrophages microglial cells; after cellular invasion HIV genetic information is incorporated into cell's chromosomal DNA; virus remains dormant for weeks to years; after an unknown stimulus for viral replication CD4 lymphocytes are destroyed (normal range of 800–1,000 cells/mmendobronchial fungal proliferation followed by transbronchial vascular invasion eventually causes widespread hemorrhage thrombosis of pulmonary arterioles ischemic tissue necrosis systemic dissemination; fungus ball = devitalized sequestrum of lung infiltrated by fungiacid rapidly disseminates throughout bronchial tree lung parenchyma, incites a chemical pneumonitis within minutes; extent of injury from mild bronchiolitis to hemorrhagic pulmonary edema depends on p H aspirated volumesubmucosal and peribronchiolar fibrosis = irreversible fibrosis of small airway walls with narrowing/obliteration of airway lumina (respiratory bronchiole, alveolar duct, alveoli) by granulation tissue of immature fibroblastic plugs (Masson bodies)(1) Bacterial/fungal pneumonia (response to antibiotics, positive cultures) (2) Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (young female, eosinophilia in 2/3) (3) Usual interstitial pneumonia (irregular opacities, decreased lung volume)postobstructive pneumonia, organizing adult respiratory distress syndrome, lung cancer, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, pulmonary manifestation of collagen vascular disease, pulmonary drug toxicity, silo filler disease, idiopathic (50%)granulation tissue polyps filling the lumina of alveolar ducts and respiratory bronchioles (bronchiolitis obliterans) variable degree of infiltration of interstitium and alveoli with macrophages (organizing pneumonia)subtype of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma; cuboidal/columnar cells grow along alveolar walls septa without disrupting the lung architecture or pulmonary interstitium (serving as “scaffolding” for tumor growth)necrotizing granulomas surrounding small airways; pulmonary arteritis as a secondary phenomenon (1) large masses of eosinophils in necrotic zones, associated with endobronchial mucus plugs, eosinophilic pneumonia, Charcot-Leyden crystals, fungal hyphae in granulomas (with asthma) (2) polymorphonuclear cell infiltrate in necrotic zones (without asthma)small uniform oval cells with scant cytoplasm; nuclei with stippled chromatin; numerous mitoses large areas of necrosis; in 20% coexistent with non-small cell histologic types (most frequently squamous cell)bronchiectasis, lung abscess, empyema, bronchial atresia, congenital lobar emphysema, cystic adenomatoid malformation, intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst, Swyer-James syndrome, pneumonia, arteriovenous fistula, primary/metastatic neoplasm, hernia of Bochdalekresembles normal lung with diffuse dilatation of bronchioles alveolar ducts alveoli; dilatation of subpleural peribronchiolar lymph vessels; covered by mesothelial layer overlying fibrous connective tissue; congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation type ii is present in 15–25%intra- and perivascular granulomas, intimal hyperplasia, medial hypertrophy, concentric collagen deposition and fibrosis of vessel walls; localized alveolitis with eosinophilic infiltration; pulmonary infarction(a) acute phase: intraalveolar, intrabronchial, peribronchial, interstitial accumulation of inflammatory cells edema(b) chronic phase (1–2 weeks after initial onset): proliferative bronchiolitis, parenchymal fibrosis, pneumatocele formation(1) Compression of SVC (64%) pulmonary veins (4%) (2) Chronic obstructive pneumonia (narrowing of trachea/central bronchi) in 5% (3) Esophageal stenosis (3%) (4) Pulmonary infarcts fibrosis (narrowing of pulmonary artery) (5) Prominent intercostal arteries (narrowing of pulmonary artery)enters thorax through aortic hiatus; ascends in right prevertebral location (between azygos vein descending aorta); swings to left at T4–6 posterior to esophagus; ascends for a short distance along right of aorta; crosses behind aortic arch; runs ventrally at T3 between left common carotid artery left subclavian artery(1) Thoracentesis (leading to loss of calories, lymphocytopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia) (2) Total parenteral nutrition (3) Thoracic duct ligation (if drainage exceeds 1,500 m L/day for adults or 100 m L/yr-age/day for children proliferation of bronchial structures at the expense of alveolar saccular development, modified by intercommunicating cysts of various size (adenomatoid overgrowth of terminal bronchioles, proliferation of smooth muscle in cyst wall, absence of cartilage)(1) Congenital lobar emphysema (2) Diaphragmatic hernia (3) Bronchogenic cyst (small solitary cyst near midline) (4) Neurenteric cyst (5) Bronchial atresia (6) Bronchopulmonary sequestration (less frequently associated with polyhydramnios/hydrops) (7) Mediastinal/pericardial teratoma1:2,000–1:2,500 livebirths; almost exclusively in Caucasians (5% carry a CF mutant gene allele); unusual in Blacks (,000), Orientals, Polynesians♦ The most common inherited disease among Caucasian Americans!

The substrate scope, the reaction mechanism, and competing pathways are discussed.

A clean and safe method for the dihydroxylation of alkenes under organic-solvent- and metal-free conditions was developed.

A complex of a nitrogen-based tetradentate ligand, tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (tpa), and osmium acts as a very efficient turnover catalyst for syn-selective dihydroxylation of various alkenes in aqueous media using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant.

Process in which naturally occuring acids are applied to the skin to removed dead skin cells and stimulate the production of new, youthful skin cells.

Chemical peels can be performed in different strengths that will have results commensurate with the depth of the peel.

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